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A gene is a slice of DNA encoding some functionality. A chromosome consists of a long strand of DNA containing many genes. A human chromosome can have up to 500 Million base pairs of DNA with thousands of genes.

Genes may direct the production of proteins with the assistance of enzymes and messenger molecules. In turn, proteins make up body structures such as organs and tissues as well as control chemical reactions and carry signals between cells. Source : Wikipedia


  • Base pair : is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogene bonds. They form the building blocks of the DNA double helix and contribute to the folded structure of the DNA and RNA.
  • Watson-Crick base pairs : guanine-cytosin and adenine-thymine (G C A T). They are dictated by specific hydrogen bonding patterns and allow the DNA helix to maintain a helical structure.
  • Hydrogen bonding :
  • Nucleotide sequence :